Vol. 2 No. 3 (2023): December Special Issue of The QUEST: Journal of Multidisciplinary Research and Development

Implementation, Challenges, Best Practices, and Innovation of Distance Education and Online Training in Vocational Education

Chengxiang Cai
Zhejiang Mechanical and Electrical Technician College
Jet Aquino
Nueva Ecija University of Science and Technology

Published 12/30/2023


  • accessibility,
  • assurance,
  • engagement,
  • equity,
  • learner quality,
  • online vocational education,
  • technological advancements
  • ...More

How to Cite

Cai, C., & Aquino, J. (2023). Implementation, Challenges, Best Practices, and Innovation of Distance Education and Online Training in Vocational Education. The QUEST: Journal of Multidisciplinary Research and Development, 2(3). https://doi.org/10.60008/thequest.v2i3.108


This quantitative descriptive study investigated the landscape of online vocational education and training, focusing on applications, challenges, best practices, and strategic planning. Conducted in Yiwu City, Zhejiang Province, China with a specific emphasis on the Zhejiang Institute of Mechanical and Electrical Technicians. Using stratified random sampling to ensure a representative sample of 98 participants.

In their research, the authors provide an in-depth look at the online vocational education and training platform, highlighting its strengths and areas for improvement. While the platform is praised for its user-friendliness, navigation, and alignment with learning objectives, it also faces challenges in overall usability and learner engagement. Users appreciate the platform's intuitive interface and visually appealing design, but they note a need for better language diversity support in accessibility features. Content organization is generally logical, and search functionalities receive positive feedback, although there's room for improvement in terms of clarifying explanations and content progression.

Turning to vocational education institutions, the research reveals key insights. These institutions are recognized for their effective technological support and the importance of continuous investment in keeping up with evolving technologies. Quality assurance, accreditation, curriculum updates, and hiring qualified instructors are seen as essential priorities. Improving assessment methods is also crucial for enhancing the quality of online vocational education. While efforts to promote access and equity are commendable, proactive measures are needed to address potential barriers. The institutions' commitment to resource allocation and financial sustainability practices, guided by data and cost-effectiveness, garners strong support.

The research findings emphasize the critical components of online vocational education and training courses. Users highly value interactive and engaging content, suggesting opportunities for enhancements in multimedia integration and gamification. A user-friendly interface is deemed crucial, with potential for improvements in intuitiveness and interactivity. Effective communication channels are highlighted as vital for fostering a sense of community among learners.

Aligned with the research, the authors identify crucial focus areas and strategies for enhancing online vocational education and training. These encompass improving interface usability, strengthening communication channels, enriching multimedia engagement, ensuring accessibility, and introducing innovative collaboration features. These strategies serve as concrete commitments aimed at augmenting educational quality, accessibility, and inclusivity for all learners.

In conclusion, the research offers a comprehensive view of the online vocational education and training landscape, recognizing its strengths while outlining opportunities for improvement. It calls for collaborative efforts to enhance user engagement, interface usability, and multimedia integration. Furthermore, the study's recommendations provide actionable strategies to shape a more inclusive, engaging, and accessible future for vocational education and training.

Full PDF


  1. Aini, Q., Budiarto, M., Putra, P.O., & Rahardja, U. (2020). Exploring E-learning Challenges During the Global COVID-19 Pandemic: A Review.
  2. Aljaraideh, Y., & Bataineh, K.B. (2019). Jordanian Students’ Barriers of Utilizing Online Learning: A Survey Study. International Education Studies.
  3. Badashian, A.S., Mahdavi, M., Pourshirmohammadi, A., & Nejad, M.M. (2008). Fundamental Usability Guidelines for User Interface Design. 2008 International Conference on Computational Sciences and Its Applications, 106-113.
  4. Bellin, H. (2006). Best Practice Channel Management. Journal of Marketing Channels, 14, 117 - 127.
  5. Brasel, S.A., & Gips, J. (2015). Interface Psychology: Touchscreens Change Attribute Importance, Decision Criteria, and Behavior in Online Choice. Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking, 18, 534 - 538.
  6. Davis, G.F. (2018). How to communicate large-scale social challenges: The problem of the disappearing American corporation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 116, 7698 - 7702.
  7. Ford, G., & Kotzé, P. (2005). Designing Usable Interfaces with Cultural Dimensions. IFIP TC13 International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction.
  8. Hooley, T., Hutchinson, J., & Neary, S. (2016). Ensuring quality in online career mentoring. British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, 44, 26 - 41.
  9. Ismail, N.S., Bakar, N.M., & Wafa, S.W. (2020). Online Learning Challenges during Pandemic COVID-19 in Malaysian Higher Learning Institution. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 8, 7151-7159.
  10. MacFarlane, A. (2016). Knowledge Organisation and its Role in Multimedia Information Retrieval. Knowledge Organization, 43, 180-183.
  11. Mandasari, B. (2020). The Impact of Online Learning toward Students’ Academic Performance on Business Correspondence Course. Estudios Demográficos y Urbanos, 4, 98-110.
  12. Murano, P. (2005). Why Anthropomorphic User Interface Feedback can be Effective and Preferred by Users. International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems.
  13. Mystakidis, S., Berki, E., & Valtanen, J. (2019). The Patras Blended Strategy Model for Deep and Meaningful Learning in Quality Life Long Distance Education. Electronic Journal of e-Learning.
  14. Reinecke, K., & Bernstein, A. (2011). Improving performance, perceived usability, and aesthetics with culturally adaptive user interfaces. ACM Trans. Comput. Hum. Interact., 18, 8:1-8:29.
  15. Rensburg, E.J. (2018). Effective online teaching and learning practices for undergraduate health sciences students: An integrative review. International Journal of Africa Nursing Sciences, 9, 73-80.
  16. Sáenz, M., & Sánchez, J. (2010). Indoor orientation and mobility for learners who are blind. Studies in health technology and informatics, 154, 165-70 .
  17. Senthamarai, S.R. (2018). Interactive teaching strategies.
  18. Soub, T. (2022). Vocational education teachers' usage of the E-learning methods in Jordan. Cypriot Journal of Educational Sciences. https://doi.org/10.18844/cjes.v17i6.7483
  19. Stanley, M.J., Serratos, J.L., Matthew, W., Fernandez, D., & Dang, M.T. (2018). Integrating Video Simulation Scenarios Into Online Nursing Instruction. The Journal of nursing education, 57 4, 245-249 .
  20. Tate, T.P., & Warschauer, M. (2022). Equity in online learning. Educational Psychologist, 57, 192 - 206.
  21. Titarenko, L., & Little, C. (2017). International Cross-Cultural Online Learning and Teaching: Effective Tools and Approaches. American Journal of Distance Education, 31, 112 - 127. https://doi.org/10.1080/08923647.2017.1306767.
  22. Tsopra, R., Jais, J.P., Venot, A., & Duclos, C. (2014). Comparison of two kinds of interface, based on guided navigation or usability principles, for improving the adoption of computerized decision support systems: application to the prescription of antibiotics. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association : JAMIA, 21 e1, e107-16 .
  23. Williams, M.L. (2007). Avatar watching: participant observation in graphical online environments. Qualitative Research, 7, 24 - 5.
  24. Woods, K., & Bliss, K. (2016). Facilitating Successful Online Discussions. The Journal of Effective Teaching, 16, 76-92.
  25. Yusril, A.N. (2020). E-accessibility Analysis in User Experience for People with Disabilities.
  26. Zouhaier, L., Hlaoui, Y.B., & Ayed, L.J. (2015). A model driven approach for improving the generation of accessible user interfaces. 2015 10th International Joint Conference on Software Technologies (ICSOFT), 2, 1-6.
  27. Patrícia, Silva. (2015). Davis' Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) (1989). doi: 10.4018/978-1-4666-8156-9.CH013
  28. Qingxiong, Ma., Liping, Liu. (2004). The Technology Acceptance Model: A Meta-Analysis of Empirical Findings. Journal of Organizational and End User Computing, doi: 10.4018/JOEUC.2004010104
  29. Priyanka, Surendran. (2012). Technology Acceptance Model: A Survey of Literature. International journal of business and social research, doi: 10.18533/IJBSR.V2I4.161
  30. Maslin, Masrom. (2007). Technology Acceptance Model and E-learning.
  31. Younghwa, Lee., Kenneth, A., Kozar., Kai, R., Larsen. (2003). The Technology Acceptance Model: Past, Present, and Future. Communications of The Ais, doi: 10.17705/1CAIS.01250